A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the location at which bones connect. They are constructed to allow movement (except for skull, sacral, sternal, and pelvic bones) and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.
Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.
Terms ending in the suffix-sis are singular and refer to just one joint, while -ses is the suffix for pluralization.
An articulate facet is generally seen as a small joint, especially used when speaking of the joints of the ribs.
Structural classification (binding tissue)
Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other. There are three structural classifications of joints:
A building joint is a junction where building elements meet without applying a static load from one element to another. When one or more of these vertical or horizontal elements that meet are required by the local building code to have a fire-resistance rating, the resulting opening that makes up the joint must be firestopped in order to restore the required compartmentalisation.
Whether or not the building elements forming the joint have a fire-resistance rating, the joint design must still consider the anticipated operational movement of each joint. Timing is also important, as freshly poured concrete shrinks particularly during the first few months of a new building, potentially causing joint size changes.
In audio engineering, joint refers to a joining of several channels of similar information in order to obtain higher quality, a smaller file size, or both.
The term joint stereo has become prominent as the Internet has allowed for the transfer of relatively low bit rate, acceptable-quality audio with modest Internet access speeds. Joint stereo refers to any number of encoding techniques used for this purpose. Two forms are described here, both of which are implemented in various ways with different codecs, such as MP3, AAC and Ogg Vorbis.
Intensity stereo coding
This form of joint stereo uses a technique known as joint frequency encoding, which functions on the principle of sound localization. Human hearing is predominantly less acute at perceiving the direction of certain audio frequencies. By exploiting this characteristic, intensity stereo coding can reduce the data rate of an audio stream with little or no perceived change in apparent quality.
More specifically, the dominance of inter-aural time differences (ITD) for sound localization by humans is only present for lower frequencies. That leaves inter-aural amplitude differences (IAD) as the dominant location indicator for higher frequencies. The idea of intensity stereo coding is to merge the lower spectrum into just one channel (thus reducing overall differences between channels) and to transmit a little side information about how to pan certain frequency regions to recover the IAD cues.
The research also discovered that the average age of a first-time buyer is 32 – three years older than a decade ago – and that many in this category will be joint applicants who have two wages to support housing costs, which may include funds from the “bank of mum and dad”.
It’s getting even harder to get on the ladder (Picture. Getty Images). Wait, do you hear that?. Ah, yes ...East of England ... That’s three years older than the average first-time buyer a decade ago. We’re also far more likely to couple or buddy up and make a joint mortgage application ... Why first-time buyers are feeling optimistic about getting on the ladder.
Distance from markets, absence of buyers and financial hurdles will otherwise keep them locked in the corn and soy cycle ... The non-profit collaborated slowly but steadily with a large group of buyers, producers and implementing partners over the past years to agree on a joint approach.
Property buyers could soon borrow thousands more – and buy far bigger homes – thanks to a small, technical rule change. The Bank of England is relaxing lending by scrapping a punitive mortgage affordability stress test from August, which will enable buyers to take out larger mortgages despite interest rate rises.
NEW DELHI. If you have bought a new vehicle, get its made before taking it out for a spin ... Navlendra Kumar Singh, joint commissioner (enforcement), told TOI that many buyers start driving a new vehicle by affixing the ‘temporary number’ on paper ... Looking for Something?. Start a Conversation. .
Hyderabad. In a major respite for buyers of commercial and residential properties that were developed on Housing Board () land through joint venture with various developers, the Telangana government has now allowed registration of such existing and prospective properties from next month ...Looking for Something?. Start a Conversation. .
“When you buy jointly it helps improve your affordability levels which will then enable you as buyers to qualify for bigger mortgage bond finance.” ... “You and your partner will both be jointly liable for the bond repayments, legal, and administrative fees associated with the buying and selling of the property and any other associated costs.
LONDON, June 17 (Reuters Breakingviews) - The last time a rival bought ABN Amro (ABNd.AS), it blew up the European banking system ... A cheap stock and simpler logic argue for a second go ... read more ABN’s last set of buyers, which jointly purchased the lender for 70 billion euros in the runup to the 2008 financial crisis, ended up in misery ... Register.
A spokesperson on behalf of Derby’s joint administrators said. “The joint administrators can confirm that today, Mr Kirchner has withdrawn his offer to acquire the business and assets of The Club... The joint administrators said in their latest statement that they were continuing to run “a competitive bidding process”, adding.
The buyer was Viacom18, a joint venture between Reliance -- owned by Indian tycoon Mukesh Ambani -- and US group ParamountGlobal as well as an investment group reportedly backed by James Murdoch. "So digital turned out to be bigger than linear TV this season in #IPLMediaRights," BCCI treasurer Arun Dhumal wrote on Twitter ... ....